Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)

Basic Principles:

Magnetic particle Inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. A magnetic field is set up in the part being tested by either passing electric current directly through it (direct magnetization), inducing a magnetic field in it (indirect magnetization), or a combination of both methods.

If there is a surface or subsurface flaw in the material, the magnetic lines of force will be deviated to the surface outside the part. By applying ultra-fine magnetic particles on the surface, they will be attracted to this leakage field and form a visible indication. The particles can either be fluorescent or non-fluorescent, depending on the sensitivity of the inspection.


  • Large surface areas of complex parts can be inspected rapidly.
  • Surface and subsurface flaws can be detected.
  • Surface preparation is less critical than it is in penetrant inspection.
  • Magnetic particle indications are produced directly on the surface of the part where the flaw is located.


  • Only ferromagnetic materials can be inspected with this method.
  • Alignment of the magnetic field and defect is critical.
  • Large currents may be needed for very large parts.
  • Surfaces should be relatively smooth.
  • Parts must be demagnetized and cleaned after inspection.

Magnetic Particle inspection for these sectors

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